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Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization reveal overlooked Ebola virus target tissues in the Ebola virus disease guinea pig model.
    Histology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization reveal overlooked Ebola virus target tissues in the Ebola virus disease guinea pig model. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2018 Jan 19; 8(1):1250.SRCooper TK, Huzella L, Johnson JC, et al. Survivors of Ebola virus infection may become subclinically infected, but whether animal models recapitulate this complication is unclear. Using histology in combination with immunohistochemistry and i...Publisher Full TextSurvivors of Ebola virus infection may become subclinically infected, but whether animal models recapitulate this complication is unclear. Using histology in combination with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in a retrospective review of a guinea pig confirmation-of-virulence study, we demonstrate for the first time Ebola virus infection in hepatic oval cells, the endocardium and stroma of the atrioventricular valves and chordae tendinae, satellite cells of peripheral ganglia, neurofibroblasts and Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and ganglia, smooth muscle cells of the uterine myometrium and vaginal wall, acini of the parotid salivary glands, thyroid follicular cells, adrenal medullary cells, pancreatic islet cells, endometrial glandular and surface epithelium, and the epithelium of the vagina, penis and, prepuce. These findings indicate that standard animal models for Ebola virus disease are not as well-described as previously thought and may serve as a stepping stone for future identification of potential sites of virus persistence.

  • Ebola Infection in Pregnancy: A Global Perspective and Lessons Learned.
    Ebola Infection in Pregnancy: A Global Perspective and Lessons Learned. [Journal Article]Clin Obstet Gynecol 2018 Mar; 61(1):186-196.COHaddad LB, Horton J, Ribner BS, et al. The 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak, primarily based in 3 West African countries, had far-reaching global effects. Importantly, the crisis highlighted large gaps in reproductive health services in affected...Publisher Full TextThe 2014 to 2016 Ebola outbreak, primarily based in 3 West African countries, had far-reaching global effects. Importantly, the crisis highlighted large gaps in reproductive health services in affected countries and inadequate health care system preparedness for obstetrical patients in the setting of highly contagious infectious diseases. We aim to review Ebola virus effects with a focus on the obstetrical implications in the context of this recent Ebola outbreak, discuss the lessons learned following this outbreak and propose current measures specific to obstetrics that should be considered in preparation for the next concerning emergent infectious disease.

  • Sensitive Multiplex Real-time RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Filoviruses.
    Sensitive Multiplex Real-time RT-qPCR Assay for the Detection of Filoviruses. [Journal Article]Health Secur 2018 Jan 19.HSDedkov VG, Magassouba N, Safonova MV, et al. Filoviruses are important etiological agents of emergent diseases with high mortality rates. Traditionally, filovirus fever diseases have primarily been a burden of African countries; however, global i...Publisher Full TextFiloviruses are important etiological agents of emergent diseases with high mortality rates. Traditionally, filovirus fever diseases have primarily been a burden of African countries; however, global interconnectedness has increased the probability of the worldwide spread of filoviruses. Therefore, national healthcare organizations need tools for managing filovirus risk, including diagnostic kits based on real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR), as this is the most suitable method for diagnosing filovirus fever diseases. Here we describe a real-time RT-qPCR assay for filovirus detection. This assay is a further development of our previously reported EBOV (Zaire)-Fl kit. Two sets (FiloA-Fl and FiloB-Fl) of real-time RT-qPCR assays for the detection of filoviruses were developed and evaluated using armored RNA phage particles (ARs) as positive controls. The limit of detection of the assay was 5x102 copies/ml of the AR-positive control for the FiloA-Fl set and 5x103 copies/ml of the AR-positive control for the FiloB-Fl set. Our assay provides a rapid and sensitive tool for detecting filoviruses. The high specificity and sensitivity of the assay make it useful for clinical and epidemiologic investigations in the field of filovirus fever diseases and their etiological agents.

  • Risk Communication and Ebola-Specific Knowledge and Behavior during 2014-2015 Outbreak, Sierra Leone.
    Risk Communication and Ebola-Specific Knowledge and Behavior during 2014-2015 Outbreak, Sierra Leone. [Journal Article]Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb; 24(2):336-344.EIWinters M, Jalloh MF, Sengeh P, et al. We assessed the effect of information sources on Ebola-specific knowledge and behavior during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. We pooled data from 4 population-based knowledg...Publisher Full TextWe assessed the effect of information sources on Ebola-specific knowledge and behavior during the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease outbreak in Sierra Leone. We pooled data from 4 population-based knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys (August, October, and December 2014 and July 2015), with a total of 10,604 respondents. We created composite variables for exposures (information sources: electronic, print, new media, government, community) and outcomes (knowledge and misconceptions, protective and risk behavior) and tested associations by using logistic regression within multilevel modeling. Exposure to information sources was associated with higher knowledge and protective behaviors. However, apart from print media, exposure to information sources was also linked to misconceptions and risk behavior, but with weaker associations observed. Knowledge and protective behavior were associated with the outbreak level, most strongly after the peak, whereas risk behavior was seen at all levels of the outbreak. In future outbreaks, close attention should be paid to dissemination of information.

  • Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1.
    Development of a Pediatric Ebola Predictive Score, Sierra Leone1. [Journal Article]Emerg Infect Dis 2018 Feb; 24(2):311-319.EIFitzgerald F, Wing K, Naveed A, et al. We compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age adm...Publisher Full TextWe compared children who were positive for Ebola virus disease (EVD) with those who were negative to derive a pediatric EVD predictor (PEP) score. We collected data on all children <13 years of age admitted to 11 Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone during August 2014-March 2015 and performed multivariable logistic regression. Among 1,054 children, 309 (29%) were EVD positive and 697 (66%) EVD negative, with 48 (5%) missing. Contact history, conjunctivitis, and age were the strongest positive predictors for EVD. The PEP score had an area under receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.80. A PEP score of 7/10 was 92% specific and 44% sensitive; 3/10 was 30% specific, 94% sensitive. The PEP score could correctly classify 79%-90% of children and could be used to facilitate triage into risk categories, depending on the sensitivity or specificity required.

  • Quantifying the Risk and Cost of Active Monitoring for Infectious Diseases.
    Quantifying the Risk and Cost of Active Monitoring for Infectious Diseases. [Journal Article]Sci Rep 2018 Jan 18; 8(1):1093.SRReich NG, Lessler J, Varma JK, et al. During outbreaks of deadly emerging pathogens (e.g., Ebola, MERS-CoV) and bioterror threats (e.g., smallpox), actively monitoring potentially infected individuals aims to limit disease transmission and...Publisher Full TextDuring outbreaks of deadly emerging pathogens (e.g., Ebola, MERS-CoV) and bioterror threats (e.g., smallpox), actively monitoring potentially infected individuals aims to limit disease transmission and morbidity. Guidance issued by CDC on active monitoring was a cornerstone of its response to the West Africa Ebola outbreak. There are limited data on how to balance the costs and performance of this important public health activity. We present a framework that estimates the risks and costs of specific durations of active monitoring for pathogens of significant public health concern. We analyze data from New York City's Ebola active monitoring program over a 16-month period in 2014-2016. For monitored individuals, we identified unique durations of active monitoring that minimize expected costs for those at "low (but not zero) risk" and "some or high risk": 21 and 31 days, respectively. Extending our analysis to smallpox and MERS-CoV, we found that the optimal length of active monitoring relative to the median incubation period was reduced compared to Ebola due to less variable incubation periods. Active monitoring can save lives but is expensive. Resources can be most effectively allocated by using exposure-risk categories to modify the duration or intensity of active monitoring.

  • A cationic, C-terminal patch and structural rearrangements in Ebola virus matrix VP40 protein control its interactions with phosphatidylserine.
    A cationic, C-terminal patch and structural rearrangements in Ebola virus matrix VP40 protein control its interactions with phosphatidylserine. [Journal Article]J Biol Chem 2018 Jan 18.JBDel Vecchio K, Frick CT, Gc JB, et al. Ebola virus (EBOV) is a filamentous lipid-enveloped virus that causes hemorrhagic fever with a high fatality rate. Viral protein 40 (VP40) is the major EBOV matrix protein and regulates viral budding f...Publisher Full TextEbola virus (EBOV) is a filamentous lipid-enveloped virus that causes hemorrhagic fever with a high fatality rate. Viral protein 40 (VP40) is the major EBOV matrix protein and regulates viral budding from the plasma membrane. VP40 is a transformer/morpheein that can structurally rearrange its native homodimer into either a hexameric filament that facilitates viral budding or a RNA-binding octameric ring that regulates viral transcription. VP40 associates with plasma-membrane lipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS), and this association is critical to budding from the host cell. However, it is poorly understood how different VP40 structures interact with PS, what essential residues are involved in this association, and whether VP40 has true selectivity for PS among different glycerophospholipid headgroups. In this study, we used lipid-binding assays, MD simulations, and cellular imaging to investigate the molecular basis of VP40-PS interactions and to determine whether different VP40 structures (i.e. monomer, dimer, and octamer) can interact with PS-containing membranes. Results from quantitative analysis indicated that VP40 associates with PS vesicles via a cationic patch in the C-terminal domain (Lys-224, 225 and Lys-274, 275). Substitutions of these residues with alanine reduced PS-vesicle binding by >40-fold and abrogated VP40 localization to the plasma membrane. Dimeric VP40 had 2-fold greater affinity for PS-containing membranes than the monomer, whereas binding of the VP40 octameric ring was reduced by nearly 10-fold. Taken together, these results suggest the different VP40 structures known to form in the viral life cycle harbor different affinities for PS-containing membranes.

  • The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas".
    The rise of neglected tropical diseases in the "new Texas". [Journal Article, Review]PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2018 Jan; 12(1):e0005581.PNHotez PJ Within the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected para...Publisher Full TextWithin the last five years, the State of Texas has experienced either transmission or outbreaks of Ebola, chikungunya, West Nile, and Zika virus infections. Autochthonous transmission of neglected parasitic and bacterial diseases has also become increasingly reported. The rise of such emerging and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) has not occurred by accident but instead reflects rapidly evolving changes and shifts in a "new" Texas beset by modern and globalizing forces that include rapid expansions in population together with urbanization and human migrations, altered transportation patterns, climate change, steeply declining vaccination rates, and a new paradigm of poverty known as "blue marble health." Summarized here are the major NTDs now affecting Texas. In addition to the vector-borne viral diseases highlighted above, there also is a high level of parasitic infections, including Chagas disease, trichomoniasis, and possibly leishmaniasis and toxocariasis, as well as typhus-group rickettsiosis, a vector-borne bacterial infection. I also highlight some of the key shifts in emerging and neglected disease patterns, partly due to an altered and evolving economic and ecological landscape in the new Texas, and provide some preliminary disease burden estimates for the major prevalent and incident NTDs.

  • Delays in Global Disease Outbreak Responses: Lessons from H1N1, Ebola, and Zika.
    Delays in Global Disease Outbreak Responses: Lessons from H1N1, Ebola, and Zika. [Journal Article]Am J Public Health 2018 Jan 18.:e1-e5.AJHoffman SJ, Silverberg SL In global disease outbreaks, there are significant time delays between the source of an outbreak and collective action. Some delay is necessary, but recent delays have been extended by insufficient sur...Publisher Full TextIn global disease outbreaks, there are significant time delays between the source of an outbreak and collective action. Some delay is necessary, but recent delays have been extended by insufficient surveillance capacity and time-consuming efforts to mobilize action. Three public health emergencies of international concern (PHEICs)-H1N1, Ebola, and Zika-allow us to identify and compare sources of delays and consider seven hypotheses about what influences the length of delays. These hypotheses can then motivate further research that empirically tests them. The three PHEICs suggest that deferred global mobilization is a greater source of delay than is poor surveillance capacity. These case study outbreaks support hypotheses that we see quicker responses for novel diseases when outbreaks do not coincide with holidays and when US citizens are infected. They do not support hypotheses that we see quicker responses for more severe outbreaks or those that threaten larger numbers of people. Better understanding the reason for delays can help target policy interventions and identify the kind of global institutional changes needed to reduce the spread and severity of future PHEICs. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print January 18, 2018: e1-e5. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304245).

  • Lessons about Causes and Management of an Ebola Outbreak.
    Lessons about Causes and Management of an Ebola Outbreak. [Journal Article]Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2017 Dec 20; 59(4):387-395.FMElargoubi A, Khelifa AWB, Haddad O, et al. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases. It is characterized by a high mortality rate due to the lack of effective and safe treatments or vaccines and its ability to spread at ...Publisher Full TextEbola virus disease (EVD) is one of the deadliest viral diseases. It is characterized by a high mortality rate due to the lack of effective and safe treatments or vaccines and its ability to spread at an unstoppable pace. The West Africa outbreak ended but the disease may strike again at any time. The latest epidemic was, by far, the deadliest to date. The most concern was why this outbreak was so different from the previous ones. We proposed in this review firstly to summarize the principal causes of its unprecedented spread and secondly to identify the steps for an effective management approach of a future Ebola outbreak. Attributes of the affected populations and insufficient control efforts were the main reasons of its amplification. This was complicated by a delayed international response. The health crisis was ignored for months until it got out of control. The management of Ebola presents a multitude of challenges in terms of preparedness and capacity to face an outbreak. In addition to the need for adequate health care facilities, ongoing surveillance tools, appropriate training of health workers and raising population awareness, readiness requires a large scale and coordinated international intervention to support affected and at-risk nations, to intensify their response activities and to strengthen their capacities. Constant interventions after the outbreak are still needed to ensure that vital health and related service institutions in these countries are fully prepared to respond to an eminent epidemic.

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