eXTReMe Tracker

Related Links

Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Evaluation of Phi6 Persistence and Suitability as an Enveloped Virus Surrogate.
    Evaluation of Phi6 Persistence and Suitability as an Enveloped Virus Surrogate. [Journal Article]Environ Sci Technol 2017 Jun 28.ESAquino de Carvalho N, Stachler E, Cimabue N, et al. Recent outbreaks involving enveloped viruses, such as Ebola virus, have raised questions regarding the persistence of enveloped viruses in the water environment. Efforts have been made to find envelope...Recent outbreaks involving enveloped viruses, such as Ebola virus, have raised questions regarding the persistence of enveloped viruses in the water environment. Efforts have been made to find enveloped virus surrogates due to challenges investigating viruses that require biosafety-level 3 or 4 handling. In this study, the enveloped bacteriophage Phi6 was evaluated as a surrogate for enveloped waterborne viruses. The persistence of Phi6 was tested in aqueous conditions chosen based on previously published viral persistence studies. Our results demonstrated that the predicted T90 (time for 90% inactivation) of Phi6 under the 12 evaluated conditions varied from 24 minutes to 117 days depending on temperature, biological activity, and aqueous media composition. Phi6 persistence was then compared with persistence values from other enveloped viruses reported in the literature. The apparent suitability of Phi6 as an enveloped virus surrogate was dependent on the temperature and composition of the media tested. Of evaluated viruses, 33%, including all conditions considered, had T90 values greater than the 95% confidence interval for Phi6. Ultimately, these results highlight the variability of enveloped virus persistence in the environment and the value of working with the virus of interest for environmental persistence studies.

  • On the Structure and Mechanism of Two-Pore Channels.
    On the Structure and Mechanism of Two-Pore Channels. [Journal Article, Review]FEBS J 2017 Jun 28.FJKintzer AF, Stroud RM In eukaryotes, two-pore channels (TPC1-3) comprise a family of ion channels that regulate the conductance of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions across cellular membranes. TPC1-3 form endolysosomal channels, but TPC...In eukaryotes, two-pore channels (TPC1-3) comprise a family of ion channels that regulate the conductance of Na(+) and Ca(2+) ions across cellular membranes. TPC1-3 form endolysosomal channels, but TPC3 can also function in the plasma membrane. TPC1/3 are voltage-gated channels, but TPC2 opens in response to binding endolysosome-specific lipid phosphatidylinositol-3,5-diphosphate (PI(3,5)P2 ). Filoviruses, such as Ebola, exploit TPC-mediated ion release as a means of escape from the endolysosome during infection. Antagonists that block TPC1/2 channel conductance abrogate filoviral infections. TPC1/2 form complexes with the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) at the endolysosomal surface that couple cellular metabolic state and cytosolic nutrient concentrations to the control of membrane potential and pH. We determined the X-ray structure of TPC1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtTPC1) to 2.87Å resolution-one of the two first reports of a TPC channel structure. Here we summarize these findings and the implications that the structure may have for understanding endolysosomal control mechanisms and their role in human health. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • From Skin Infections to Ebola: Practice, Policy, and Beyond: An Interview with Gregory Raczniak, MD, PhD
.
    From Skin Infections to Ebola: Practice, Policy, and Beyond: An Interview with Gregory Raczniak, MD, PhD
. [Journal Article]Yale J Biol Med 2017 Jun; 90(2):341-343.YJMirza FN, Mirza HN, Horien C, et al. 

  • The lifecycle of the Ebola virus in host cells.
    The lifecycle of the Ebola virus in host cells. [Journal Article, Review]Oncotarget 2017 Jun 15.OYu DS, Weng TH, Wu XX, et al. Ebola haemorrhagic fever causes deadly disease in humans and non-human primates resulting from infection with the Ebola virus (EBOV) genus of the family Filoviridae. However, the mechanisms of EBOV lif...Publisher Full TextEbola haemorrhagic fever causes deadly disease in humans and non-human primates resulting from infection with the Ebola virus (EBOV) genus of the family Filoviridae. However, the mechanisms of EBOV lifecycle in host cells, including viral entry, membrane fusion, RNP formation, GP-tetherin interaction, and VP40-inner leaflet association remain poorly understood. This review describes the biological functions of EBOV proteins and their roles in the lifecycle, summarizes the factors related to EBOV proteins or RNA expression throughout the different phases, and reviews advances with regards to the molecular events and mechanisms of the EBOV lifecycle. Furthermore, the review outlines the aspects remain unclear that urgently need to be solved in future research.

  • Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.
    Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system. [Journal Article]Trop Med Int Health 2017 Jun 27.TMAshbaugh HR, Kuang B, Gadoth A, et al. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008, and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all ...Publisher Full TextEbola Virus Disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response.Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting in IDSR.Although the active and passive surveillance represent two distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined.Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008, and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognizing EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Guide to the Correct Use of Filoviral Nomenclature.
    Guide to the Correct Use of Filoviral Nomenclature. [Journal Article]Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 Jun 27.CTKuhn JH The International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo vir...Publisher Full TextThe International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) currently recognizes three genera and seven species as part of the mononegaviral family Filoviridae. Eight distinct filoviruses (Bundibugyo virus, Ebola virus, Lloviu virus, Marburg virus, Ravn virus, Reston virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) have been assigned to these seven species. This chapter briefly summarizes the status quo of filovirus classification and focuses on the importance of differentiating between filoviral species and filoviruses and the correct use of taxonomic and vernacular filovirus names and abbreviations in written and oral discourse.

  • Ebola Virus Disease in Humans: Pathophysiology and Immunity.
    Ebola Virus Disease in Humans: Pathophysiology and Immunity. [Journal Article]Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2017 Jun 27.CTMuñoz-Fontela C, McElroy AK Viruses of the Ebolavirus genus cause sporadic epidemics of severe and systemic febrile disease that are fueled by human-to-human transmission. Despite the notoriety of ebolaviruses, particularly Ebola...Publisher Full TextViruses of the Ebolavirus genus cause sporadic epidemics of severe and systemic febrile disease that are fueled by human-to-human transmission. Despite the notoriety of ebolaviruses, particularly Ebola virus (EBOV), as prominent viral hemorrhagic fever agents, and the international concern regarding Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks, very little is known about the pathophysiology of EVD in humans and, in particular, about the human immune correlates of survival and immune memory. This lack of basic knowledge about physiological characteristics of EVD is probably attributable to the dearth of clinical and laboratory data gathered from past outbreaks. The unprecedented magnitude of the EVD epidemic that occurred in West Africa from 2013 to 2016 has allowed, for the first time, evaluation of clinical, epidemiological, and immunological parameters in a significant number of patients using state-of-the-art laboratory equipment. This review will summarize the data from the literature regarding human pathophysiologic and immunologic responses to filoviral infection.

  • Ethics review of studies during public health emergencies - the experience of the WHO ethics review committee during the Ebola virus disease epidemic.
    Ethics review of studies during public health emergencies - the experience of the WHO ethics review committee during the Ebola virus disease epidemic. [Journal Article]BMC Med Ethics 2017 Jun 26; 18(1):43.BMAlirol E, Kuesel AC, Guraiib MM, et al. To accelerate study approval in future public health emergencies, we recommend: (1) internally consistent and complete submissions with information documents in language participants are likely to unde...Publisher Full TextBetween 2013 and 2016, West Africa experienced the largest ever outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease. In the absence of registered treatments or vaccines to control this lethal disease, the World Health Organization coordinated and supported research to expedite identification of interventions that could control the outbreak and improve future control efforts. Consequently, the World Health Organization Research Ethics Review Committee (WHO-ERC) was heavily involved in reviews and ethics discussions. It reviewed 24 new and 22 amended protocols for research studies including interventional (drug, vaccine) and observational studies.WHO-ERC provided the reviews within on average 6 working days. The WHO-ERC often could not provide immediate approval of protocols for reasons which were not Ebola Virus Disease specific but related to protocol inconsistencies, missing information and complex informed consents. WHO-ERC considerations on Ebola Virus Disease specific issues (benefit-risk assessment, study design, exclusion of pregnant women and children from interventional studies, data and sample sharing, collaborative partnerships including international and local researchers and communities, community engagement and participant information) are presented.To accelerate study approval in future public health emergencies, we recommend: (1) internally consistent and complete submissions with information documents in language participants are likely to understand, (2) close collaboration between local and international researchers from research inception, (3) generation of template agreements for data and sample sharing and use during the ongoing global consultations on bio-banks, (4) formation of Joint Scientific Advisory and Data Safety Review Committees for all studies linked to a particular intervention or group of interventions, (5) formation of a Joint Ethics Review Committee with representatives of the Ethics Committees of all institutions and countries involved to strengthen reviews through the different perspectives provided without the 'opportunity costs' for time to final approval of multiple, independent reviews, (6) direct information exchange between the chairs of advisory, safety review and ethics committees, (7) more Ethics Committee support for investigators than is standard and (8) a global consultation on criteria for inclusion of pregnant women and children in interventional studies for conditions which put them at particularly high risk of mortality or other irreversible adverse outcomes under standard-of-care.

  • The rise of Zika infection and microcephaly: what can we learn from a public health emergency?
    The rise of Zika infection and microcephaly: what can we learn from a public health emergency? [Journal Article, Review]Public Health 2017 Jun 23.:87-92.PHMcCloskey B, Endericks T The response to Zika highlights important issues and lessons for future outbreaks that might pose an international risk. Particular challenges arose in trying to maintain an evidence-based approach to ...Publisher Full TextTo consider why Zika was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), why it stopped being one and what we can learn from this for the future.This paper reviews the sequence of events and evidence base for the decision to declare Zika a PHEIC, the global response to this, the challenges in maintaining an evidence-based approach to outbreak response and identifies learning outcomes.Evidence review, all published articles in reputable UK and international journals were identified.The association between Zika virus infection and congenital malformations including microcephaly became a PHEIC on 1st February 2016 and was declared to be no longer an emergency in November 2016. This shaped the global response led by WHO in the first global emergency since Ebola in West Africa.The response to Zika highlights important issues and lessons for future outbreaks that might pose an international risk. Particular challenges arose in trying to maintain an evidence-based approach to public risk communication when the evidence is unclear or still evolving. The Zika incident also demonstrates the importance of public health practitioners and agencies understanding the political context in which outbreaks must be managed and understanding the competing factors that shape the political response.

  • Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses.
    Enhanced light microscopy visualization of virus particles from Zika virus to filamentous ebolaviruses. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(6):e0179728.PlosDaaboul GG, Freedman DS, Scherr SM, et al. Light microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus ...Publisher Full TextLight microscopy is a powerful tool in the detection and analysis of parasites, fungi, and prokaryotes, but has been challenging to use for the detection of individual virus particles. Unlabeled virus particles are too small to be visualized using standard visible light microscopy. Characterization of virus particles is typically performed using higher resolution approaches such as electron microscopy or atomic force microscopy. These approaches require purification of virions away from their normal millieu, requiring significant levels of expertise, and can only enumerate small numbers of particles per field of view. Here, we utilize a visible light imaging approach called Single Particle Interferometric Reflectance Imaging Sensor (SP-IRIS) that allows automated counting and sizing of thousands of individual virions. Virions are captured directly from complex solutions onto a silicon chip and then detected using a reflectance interference imaging modality. We show that the use of different imaging wavelengths allows the visualization of a multitude of virus particles. Using Violet/UV illumination, the SP-IRIS technique is able to detect individual flavivirus particles (~40 nm), while green light illumination is capable of identifying and discriminating between vesicular stomatitis virus and vaccinia virus (~360 nm). Strikingly, the technology allows the clear identification of filamentous infectious ebolavirus particles and virus-like particles. The ability to differentiate and quantify unlabeled virus particles extends the usefulness of traditional light microscopy and can be embodied in a straightforward benchtop approach allowing widespread applications ranging from rapid detection in biological fluids to analysis of virus-like particles for vaccine development and production.