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Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Ebola virus disease in children during the 2014-2015 epidemic in Guinea: a nationwide cohort study.
    Ebola virus disease in children during the 2014-2015 epidemic in Guinea: a nationwide cohort study. [Journal Article]Eur J Pediatr 2017 Apr 25.EJChérif MS, Koonrungsesomboon N, Kassé D, et al. EVD is a major threat to child health, especially among children under 5 years of age. To date, none of demographic and clinical features, except younger age, have been consistently shown to affect mor...Publisher Full TextThe most recent epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has resulted in more than 11,000 deaths in West Africa. It has threatened child health in the affected countries, including Guinea. This nationwide retrospective cohort study included all children under 20 years of age with laboratory-confirmed EVD in Guinea during the 2014-2015 Ebola outbreak for analysis. Of 8,448 children with probable or suspected EVD, 695 cases were laboratory-confirmed EVD. The overall case fatality rate (CFR) was 62.9%. Pediatric patients with younger age had a significantly higher rate of death (adjusted OR = 0.995; 95%CI = 0.990-1.000; p = 0.046), with the highest CFR of 82.9% in children aged less than 5 years. Fever (91%), fatigue (87%), and gastrointestinal signs and symptoms (70%) were common clinical features on admission of the pediatric patients, while bleeding signs were not occurring often (24%). None of clinical features and epidemiologic risk factors for Ebola were associated with mortality outcome in our cohort study.EVD is a major threat to child health, especially among children under 5 years of age. To date, none of demographic and clinical features, except younger age, have been consistently shown to affect mortality outcome in children infected with Ebola virus. What is Known: • The 2014-2015 West Africa Ebola epidemic is the largest and most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history, with more than 11,000 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. • During ongoing outbreak investigations, it is suggested that young children aged less than 5 years are particularly vulnerable and highly susceptible to death. What is New: • Demographic and clinical characteristics of the nationwide cohort of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed EVD in Guinea are reported. • The results confirm the high rate of death among EVD children under 5 years of age, while none of demographic and clinical features, except younger age, could serve as a predictor of mortality outcome in pediatric patients with EVD.

  • The Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Eritoran Protects Mice from Lethal Filovirus Challenge.
    The Toll-Like Receptor 4 Antagonist Eritoran Protects Mice from Lethal Filovirus Challenge. [Journal Article]MBio 2017 Apr 25; 8(2)MBIOYounan P, Ramanathan P, Graber J, et al. The 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa, which has seen intermittent reemergence since it was officially declared over in February of 2016, has demonstrated the need for the rapid d...Publisher Full TextThe 2013-2016 outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) in West Africa, which has seen intermittent reemergence since it was officially declared over in February of 2016, has demonstrated the need for the rapid development of therapeutic intervention strategies. Indirect evidence has suggested that the EBOV infection shares several commonalities associated with the onset of bacterial sepsis, including the development of a "cytokine storm." Eritoran, a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist, was previously shown to result in protection of mice against lethal influenza virus infection. Here, we report that eritoran protects against the lethality caused by EBOV and the closely related Marburg virus (MARV) in mice. Daily administration of eritoran reduced clinical signs of the disease and, unexpectedly, resulted in reduced viral titers. Analysis of peripheral blood indicated that eritoran reduced granulocytosis despite an apparent increase in the percentage of activated neutrophils. Surprisingly, the increased survival rate and reduced viremia were not accompanied by increased CD3(+) T lymphocytes, as lymphopenia was more pronounced in eritoran-treated mice. Overall, a global reduction in the levels of multiple cytokines, chemokines, and free radicals was detected in serum, suggesting that eritoran treatment may alleviate the severity of the "cytokine storm." Last, we provide compelling preliminary evidence suggesting that eritoran treatment may alter the kinetics of cytokine responses. Hence, these studies are the first to demonstrate the role of TLR4 in the pathogenesis of EBOV disease and indicate that eritoran is a prime candidate for further evaluation as a clinically viable therapeutic intervention strategy for EBOV and MARV infections.IMPORTANCE A hallmark of bacterial sepsis is the uncontrolled activation of the TLR4 pathway, which is the primary cause of the pathological features associated with this disease. Considering the importance of TLR4 signaling in bacterial sepsis and the remarkable pathological similarities associated with infections caused by filoviruses Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV), we assessed the ability of eritoran, a TLR4 antagonist, to protect mice against these viruses. Here, we show that eritoran effectively promotes survival of mice of filovirus infection, as 70% and 90% of mice receiving daily eritoran treatment survived lethal EBOV and MARV infections, respectively. Eritoran treatment resulted in a remarkable global reduction of inflammatory mediators, which is suggestive of the mechanism of action of this therapeutic treatment. These studies are the first to show the critical importance of the TLR4 pathway in the pathogenesis of filovirus infection and may provide a new avenue for therapeutic interventions.

  • Political drivers of epidemic response: foreign healthcare workers and the 2014 Ebola outbreak.
    Political drivers of epidemic response: foreign healthcare workers and the 2014 Ebola outbreak. [Journal Article]Disasters 2017 Apr 25.DNohrstedt D, Baekkeskov E This study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing o...Publisher Full TextThis study demonstrates that countries responded quite differently to calls for healthcare workers (HCWs) during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa in 2014. Using a new dataset on the scale and timing of national pledges and the deployment of HCWs to states experiencing outbreaks of the virus disease (principally, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone), it shows that few foreign nations deployed HCWs early, some made pledges but then fulfilled them slowly, and most sent no HCWs at all. To aid understanding of such national responses, the paper reviews five theoretical perspectives that offer potentially competing or complementary explanations of foreign government medical assistance for international public health emergencies. The study systematically validates that countries varied greatly in whether and when they addressed HCW deployment needs during the Ebola crisis of 2014, and offers suggestions for a theory-driven inquiry to elucidate the logics of foreign interventions in critical infectious disease epidemics.

  • Strategies in Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnostics at the point of care.
    Strategies in Ebola virus disease (EVD) diagnostics at the point of care. [Journal Article]Crit Rev Microbiol 2017 Apr 25.:1-20.CRCoarsey CT, Esiobu N, Narayanan R, et al. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a devastating, highly infectious illness with a high mortality rate. The disease is endemic to regions of Central and West Africa, where there is limited laboratory infrast...Publisher Full TextEbola virus disease (EVD) is a devastating, highly infectious illness with a high mortality rate. The disease is endemic to regions of Central and West Africa, where there is limited laboratory infrastructure and trained staff. The recent 2014 West African EVD outbreak has been unprecedented in case numbers and fatalities, and has proven that such regional outbreaks can become a potential threat to global public health, as it became the source for the subsequent transmission events in Spain and the USA. The urgent need for rapid and affordable means of detecting Ebola is crucial to control the spread of EVD and prevent devastating fatalities. Current diagnostic techniques include molecular diagnostics and other serological and antigen detection assays; which can be time-consuming, laboratory-based, often require trained personnel and specialized equipment. In this review, we discuss the various Ebola detection techniques currently in use, and highlight the potential future directions pertinent to the development and adoption of novel point-of-care diagnostic tools. Finally, a case is made for the need to develop novel microfluidic technologies and versatile rapid detection platforms for early detection of EVD.

  • Spatial Determinants of Ebola Virus Disease Risk for the West African Epidemic.
    Spatial Determinants of Ebola Virus Disease Risk for the West African Epidemic. [Journal Article]PLoS Curr 2017 Mar 31.PCZinszer K, Morrison K, Verma A, et al.  The finding of radio ownership and reduced EVD transmission risk suggests that the use of radio messaging for control and prevention purposes may have been crucial in reducing the EVD transmission ris...Publisher Full TextAlthough many studies have investigated the probability of Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreaks while other studies have simulated the size and speed of EVD outbreaks, few have investigated the environmental and population-level predictors of Ebola transmission once an outbreak is underway. Identifying strong predictors of transmission could help guide and target limited public health resources during an EVD outbreak. We examined several environmental and population-level demographic predictors of EVD risk from the West African epidemic.We obtained district-level estimates from the World Health Organization EVD case data, demographic indicators obtained from the Demographic and Health surveys, and satellite-derived temperature, rainfall, and land cover estimates. A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson model was used to estimate EVD risk and to evaluate the spatial variability explained by the selected predictors. We found that districts had greater risk of EVD with increasing proportion of households not possessing a radio (RR 2.79, 0.90-8.78; RR 4.23, 1.16-15.93), increasing rainfall (RR 2.18; 0.66-7.20; 5.34, 1.20-23.90), and urban land cover (RR 4.87, 1.56-15.40; RR 5.74, 1.68-19.67). The finding of radio ownership and reduced EVD transmission risk suggests that the use of radio messaging for control and prevention purposes may have been crucial in reducing the EVD transmission risk in certain districts, although this association requires further study. Future research should examine the etiologic relationships between the identified risk factors and human-to-human transmission of EVD with a focus on factors related to population mobility and healthcare accessibility, which are critical features of epidemic propagation and control.

  • Lessons learned by surveillance during the tail-end of the Ebola outbreak in Guinea, June-October 2015: a case series.
    Lessons learned by surveillance during the tail-end of the Ebola outbreak in Guinea, June-October 2015: a case series. [Journal Article]BMC Infect Dis 2017 Apr 24; 17(1):304.BIKeïta M, Conté F, Diallo B, et al. Publisher Full Text

  • A Bayesian Belief Network Model Assessing the Risk to Wastewater Workers of Contracting Ebola Virus Disease During an Outbreak.
    A Bayesian Belief Network Model Assessing the Risk to Wastewater Workers of Contracting Ebola Virus Disease During an Outbreak. [Journal Article]Risk Anal 2017 Apr 24.RAZabinski JW, Pieper KJ, Gibson JM During an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital...Publisher Full TextDuring an outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD), hospitals' connections to municipal wastewater systems may provide a path for patient waste bearing infectious viral particles to pass from the hospital into the wastewater treatment system, potentially posing risks to sewer and wastewater workers. To quantify these risks, we developed a Bayesian belief network model incorporating data on virus behavior and survival along with structural characteristics of hospitals and wastewater treatment systems. We applied the model to assess risks under several different scenarios of workers' exposure to wastewater for a wastewater system typical of a mid-sized U.S. city. The model calculates a median daily risk of developing EVD of approximately 6.1×10(-12) (90% confidence interval: 1.0×10(-12) to 5.4×10(-9) ; mean 1.8×10(-6) ) when no prior exposure conditions are specified. Under a worst-case scenario in which a worker stationed in the sewer adjacent to the hospital accidentally ingests several drops (0.35 mL) of wastewater, median risk is 5.8×10(-4) (90% CI: 8.8×10(-7) to 9.5×10(-2) ; mean 3.2×10(-2) ) . Disinfection of patient waste with peracetic acid for 15 minutes prior to flushing decreases the estimated median risk to 3.8×10(-7) (90% CI: 4.1×10(-9) to 8.6×10(-5) ; mean 2.9×10(-5) ). The results suggest that requiring hospitals to disinfect EVD patient waste prior to flushing may be advisable. The modeling framework can provide insight into managing patient waste during future outbreaks of highly virulent infectious pathogens.

  • Cyanobacterial lectins characteristics and their role as antiviral agents.
    Cyanobacterial lectins characteristics and their role as antiviral agents. [Journal Article, Review]Int J Biol Macromol 2017 Apr 21.:475-496.IJSingh RS, Walia AK, Khattar JS, et al. Lectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited ...Publisher Full TextLectins are ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins of non-immune origin that bind reversibly to carbohydrates in non-covalent and highly specific manner. These lectin-glycan interactions could be exploited for establishment of novel therapeutics, targeting the adherence stage of viruses and thus helpful in eliminating wide spread viral infections. Here the review focuses on the haemagglutination activity, carbohydrate specificity and characteristics of cyanobacterial lectins. Cyanobacterial lectins exhibiting high specificity towards mannose or complex glycans have potential role as anti-viral agents. Prospective role of cyanobacterial lectins in targeting various diseases of worldwide concern such as HIV, hepatitis, herpes, influenza and ebola viruses has been discussed extensively. The review also lays emphasis on recent studies involving structural analysis of glycan-lectin interactions which in turn influence their mechanism of action. Altogether, the promising approach of these cyanobacterial lectins provides insight into their use as antiviral agents.

  • Ebola Salience, Death-Thought Accessibility, and Worldview Defense: A Terror Management Theory Perspective.
    Ebola Salience, Death-Thought Accessibility, and Worldview Defense: A Terror Management Theory Perspective. [Journal Article]Death Stud 2017 Apr 24.DSArrowood RB, Cox CR, Kersten M, et al. According to terror management theory, individuals defend their cultural beliefs following mortality salience. The current research examined whether naturally occurring instances of death (i.e., Ebola)...Publisher Full TextAccording to terror management theory, individuals defend their cultural beliefs following mortality salience. The current research examined whether naturally occurring instances of death (i.e., Ebola) correspond to results found in laboratory studies. The results of two experiments demonstrated that participants experienced a greater accessibility of death-related thoughts in response to an Ebola prime during a regional outbreak. Study 2 also showed that increased mortality awareness following an Ebola manipulation was associated with greater worldview defense (i.e., religious fundamentalism). Together, these results suggest that reminders of death in the form of a disease threat operate similarly to a mortality salience manipulation.

  • Dose-dependent T-cell Dynamics and Cytokine Cascade Following rVSV-ZEBOV Immunization.
    Dose-dependent T-cell Dynamics and Cytokine Cascade Following rVSV-ZEBOV Immunization. [Journal Article]EBioMedicine 2017 Apr 05.EDahlke C, Kasonta R, Lunemann S, et al. In addition to a benign safety and robust humoral immunogenicity profile, subjects immunized with 2×10(7) PFU elicited higher cellular immune responses and stronger interlocked cytokine networks compar...Publisher Full TextThe recent West African Ebola epidemic led to accelerated efforts to test Ebola vaccine candidates. As part of the World Health Organisation-led VSV Ebola Consortium (VEBCON), we performed a phase I clinical trial investigating rVSV-ZEBOV (a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored Ebola vaccine), which has recently demonstrated protection from Ebola virus disease (EVD) in phase III clinical trials and is currently in advanced stages of licensing. So far, correlates of immune protection are incompletely understood and the role of cell-mediated immune responses has not been comprehensively investigated to date.We recruited 30 healthy subjects aged 18-55 into an open-label, dose-escalation phase I trial testing three doses of rVSV-ZEBOV (3×10(5) plaque-forming units (PFU), 3×10(6) PFU, 2×10(7) PFU) (ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02283099). Main study objectives were safety and immunogenicity, while exploratory objectives included lymphocyte dynamics, cell-mediated immunity and cytokine networks, which were assessed using flow cytometry, ELISpot and LUMINEX assay.Immunization with rVSV-ZEBOV was well tolerated without serious vaccine-related adverse events. Ebola virus-specific neutralizing antibodies were induced in nearly all individuals. Additionally, vaccinees, particularly within the highest dose cohort, generated Ebola glycoprotein (GP)-specific T cells and initiated a cascade of signaling molecules following stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells with Ebola GP peptides.In addition to a benign safety and robust humoral immunogenicity profile, subjects immunized with 2×10(7) PFU elicited higher cellular immune responses and stronger interlocked cytokine networks compared to lower dose groups. To our knowledge these data represent the first detailed cell-mediated immuneprofile of a clinical trial testing rVSV-ZEBOV, which is of particular interest in light of its potential upcoming licensure as the first Ebola vaccine. VEBCON trial Hamburg, Germany (NCT02283099).