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Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Evidence-based guidelines for supportive care of patients with Ebola virus disease.
    Evidence-based guidelines for supportive care of patients with Ebola virus disease. [Journal Article]Lancet 2017 Oct 17.LctLamontagne F, Fowler RA, Adhikari NK, et al. The 2013-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was associated with unprecedented challenges in the provision of care to patients with Ebola virus disease, including absence of pre-existing iso...Publisher Full TextThe 2013-16 Ebola virus disease outbreak in west Africa was associated with unprecedented challenges in the provision of care to patients with Ebola virus disease, including absence of pre-existing isolation and treatment facilities, patients' reluctance to present for medical care, and limitations in the provision of supportive medical care. Case fatality rates in west Africa were initially greater than 70%, but decreased with improvements in supportive care. To inform optimal care in a future outbreak of Ebola virus disease, we employed the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology to develop evidence-based guidelines for the delivery of supportive care to patients admitted to Ebola treatment units. Key recommendations include administration of oral and, as necessary, intravenous hydration; systematic monitoring of vital signs and volume status; availability of key biochemical testing; adequate staffing ratios; and availability of analgesics, including opioids, for pain relief.

  • A Systematic Review of Computational Drug Discovery, Development, and Repurposing for Ebola Virus Disease Treatment.
    A Systematic Review of Computational Drug Discovery, Development, and Repurposing for Ebola Virus Disease Treatment. [Journal Article, Review]Molecules 2017 Oct 20; 22(10)MSchuler J, Hudson ML, Schwartz D, et al. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is a deadly global public health threat, with no currently approved treatments. Traditional drug discovery and development is too expensive and inefficient to react quickly to...Publisher Full TextEbola virus disease (EVD) is a deadly global public health threat, with no currently approved treatments. Traditional drug discovery and development is too expensive and inefficient to react quickly to the threat. We review published research studies that utilize computational approaches to find or develop drugs that target the Ebola virus and synthesize its results. A variety of hypothesized and/or novel treatments are reported to have potential anti-Ebola activity. Approaches that utilize multi-targeting/polypharmacology have the most promise in treating EVD.

  • Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Ebola Virus Disease at the End of a National Epidemic - Guinea, August 2015.
    Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Related to Ebola Virus Disease at the End of a National Epidemic - Guinea, August 2015. [Journal Article]MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 20; 66(41):1109-1115.MMJalloh MF, Robinson SJ, Corker J, et al. Health communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 ...Publisher Full TextHealth communication and social mobilization efforts to improve the public's knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding Ebola virus disease (Ebola) were important in controlling the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Guinea (1), which resulted in 3,814 reported Ebola cases and 2,544 deaths.* Most Ebola cases in Guinea resulted from the washing and touching of persons and corpses infected with Ebola without adequate infection control precautions at home, at funerals, and in health facilities (2,3). As the 18-month epidemic waned in August 2015, Ebola KAP were assessed in a survey among residents of Guinea recruited through multistage cluster sampling procedures in the nation's eight administrative regions (Boké, Conakry, Faranah, Kankan, Kindia, Labé, Mamou, and Nzérékoré). Nearly all participants (92%) were aware of Ebola prevention measures, but 27% believed that Ebola could be transmitted by ambient air, and 49% believed they could protect themselves from Ebola by avoiding mosquito bites. Of the participants, 95% reported taking actions to avoid getting Ebola, especially more frequent handwashing (93%). Nearly all participants (91%) indicated they would send relatives with suspected Ebola to Ebola treatment centers, and 89% said they would engage special Ebola burial teams to remove corpses with suspected Ebola from homes. Of the participants, 66% said they would prefer to observe an Ebola-affected corpse from a safe distance at burials rather than practice traditional funeral rites involving corpse contact. The findings were used to guide the ongoing epidemic response and recovery efforts, including health communication, social mobilization, and planning, to prevent and respond to future outbreaks or sporadic cases of Ebola.

  • Reporting Deaths Among Children Aged <5 Years After the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic - Bombali District, Sierra Leone, 2015-2016.
    Reporting Deaths Among Children Aged <5 Years After the Ebola Virus Disease Epidemic - Bombali District, Sierra Leone, 2015-2016. [Journal Article]MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017 Oct 20; 66(41):1116-1118.MMWilkinson AL, Kaiser R, Jalloh MF, et al. Mortality surveillance and vital registration are limited in Sierra Leone, a country with one of the highest mortality rates among children aged <5 years worldwide, approximately 120 deaths per 1,000 l...Publisher Full TextMortality surveillance and vital registration are limited in Sierra Leone, a country with one of the highest mortality rates among children aged <5 years worldwide, approximately 120 deaths per 1,000 live births (1,2). To inform efforts to strengthen surveillance, stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years from multiple surveillance streams in Bombali Sebora chiefdom were retrospectively reviewed. In total, during January 2015-November 2016, 930 deaths in children aged <5 years were identified, representing 73.3% of the 1,269 deaths that were expected based on modeled estimates. The "117" telephone alert system established during the Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic captured 683 (73.4%) of all reported deaths in children aged <5 years, and was the predominant reporting source for stillbirths (n = 172). In the absence of complete vital events registration, 117 call alerts markedly improved the completeness of reporting of stillbirths and deaths in children aged <5 years.

  • The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen.
    The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen. [Journal Article]Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Nov; 23(11):1922-1924.EISalam AP, Horby PW Zika virus RNA is frequently detected in the semen of men after Zika virus infection. To learn more about persistence of viruses in genital fluids, we searched PubMed for relevant articles. We found ev...Publisher Full TextZika virus RNA is frequently detected in the semen of men after Zika virus infection. To learn more about persistence of viruses in genital fluids, we searched PubMed for relevant articles. We found evidence that 27 viruses, across a broad range of virus families, can be found in human semen.

  • Symptom- and Laboratory-Based Ebola Risk Scores to Differentiate Likely Ebola Infections.
    Symptom- and Laboratory-Based Ebola Risk Scores to Differentiate Likely Ebola Infections. [Journal Article]Emerg Infect Dis 2017 Nov; 23(11):1792-1799.EIOza S, Sesay AA, Russell NJ, et al. Rapidly identifying likely Ebola patients is difficult because of a broad case definition, overlap of symptoms with common illnesses, and lack of rapid diagnostics. However, rapid identification is cri...Publisher Full TextRapidly identifying likely Ebola patients is difficult because of a broad case definition, overlap of symptoms with common illnesses, and lack of rapid diagnostics. However, rapid identification is critical for care and containment of contagion. We analyzed retrospective data from 252 Ebola-positive and 172 Ebola-negative patients at a Sierra Leone Ebola treatment center to develop easy-to-use risk scores, based on symptoms and laboratory tests (if available), to stratify triaged patients by their likelihood of having Ebola infection. Headache, diarrhea, difficulty breathing, nausea/vomiting, loss of appetite, and conjunctivitis comprised the symptom-based score. The laboratory-based score also included creatinine, creatine kinase, alanine aminotransferase, and total bilirubin. This risk score correctly identified 92% of Ebola-positive patients as high risk for infection; both scores correctly classified >70% of Ebola-negative patients as low or medium risk. Clinicians can use these risk scores to gauge the likelihood of triaged patients having Ebola while awaiting laboratory confirmation.

  • Systematic screening of viral entry inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance.
    Systematic screening of viral entry inhibitors using surface plasmon resonance. [Journal Article, Review]Rev Med Virol 2017 Oct 18.RMKumar PKR Viral binding and entry into host cells for various viruses have been studied extensively, yielding a detailed understanding of the overall viral entry process. As cell entry is an essential and requis...Publisher Full TextViral binding and entry into host cells for various viruses have been studied extensively, yielding a detailed understanding of the overall viral entry process. As cell entry is an essential and requisite process by which a virus initiates infection, it is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. The advantages of targeting viral entry are an extracellular target site, relatively easy access for biological interventions, and lower toxicity. Several cell-based strategies and biophysical techniques have been used to screen compounds that block viral entry. These studies led to the discovery of inhibitors against HIV, HCV, influenza, Ebola, and RSV. In recent years, several compounds screened by fragment-based drug discovery have been approved as drugs or are in the final stages of clinical trials. Among fragment screening technologies, surface plasmon resonance has been widely used because it provides accurate information on binding kinetics, allows real-time monitoring of ligand-drug interactions, requires very small sample amounts to perform analyses, and requires no modifications to or labeling of ligands. This review focuses on surface plasmon resonance-based schemes for screening viral entry inhibitors.

  • Putative endogenous filovirus VP35-like protein potentially functions as an IFN antagonist but not a polymerase cofactor.
    Putative endogenous filovirus VP35-like protein potentially functions as an IFN antagonist but not a polymerase cofactor. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(10):e0186450.PlosKondoh T, Manzoor R, Nao N, et al. It has been proposed that some non-retroviral RNA virus genes are integrated into vertebrate genomes. Endogenous filovirus-like elements (EFLs) have been discovered in some mammalian genomes. However, ...Publisher Full TextIt has been proposed that some non-retroviral RNA virus genes are integrated into vertebrate genomes. Endogenous filovirus-like elements (EFLs) have been discovered in some mammalian genomes. However, their potential roles in ebolavirus infection are unclear. A filovirus VP35-like element (mlEFL35) is found in the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) genome. Putative mlEFL35-derived protein (mlEFL35p) contains nearly full-length amino acid sequences corresponding to ebolavirus VP35. Ebola virus VP35 has been shown to bind double-stranded RNA, leading to inhibition of type I interferon (IFN) production, and is also known as a viral polymerase cofactor that is essential for viral RNA transcription/replication. In this study, we transiently expressed mlEFL35p in human kidney cells and investigated its biological functions. We first found that mlEFL35p was coimmunoprecipitated with itself and ebolavirus VP35s but not with the viral nucleoprotein. Then the biological functions of mlEFL35p were analyzed by comparing it to ebolavirus VP35s. We found that the expression of mlEFL35p significantly inhibited human IFN-β promoter activity as well as VP35s. By contrast, expression of mlEFL35p did not support viral RNA transcription/replication and indeed slightly decrease the reporter gene expression in a minigenome assay. These results suggest that mlEFL35p potentially acts as an IFN antagonist but not a polymerase cofactor.

  • Unveiling a Drift Resistant Cryptotope within Marburgvirus Nucleoprotein Recognized by Llama Single-Domain Antibodies.
    Unveiling a Drift Resistant Cryptotope within Marburgvirus Nucleoprotein Recognized by Llama Single-Domain Antibodies. [Journal Article]Front Immunol 2017.:1234.FIGarza JA, Taylor AB, Sherwood LJ, et al. Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever virus that is increasingly re-emerging in Africa, has been imported to both Europe and the US, and is also a Tier 1 bioterror threat. As a nega...Marburg virus (MARV) is a highly lethal hemorrhagic fever virus that is increasingly re-emerging in Africa, has been imported to both Europe and the US, and is also a Tier 1 bioterror threat. As a negative sense RNA virus, MARV has error prone replication which can yield progeny capable of evading countermeasures. To evaluate this vulnerability, we sought to determine the epitopes of 4 llama single-domain antibodies (sdAbs or VHH) specific for nucleoprotein (NP), each capable of forming MARV monoclonal affinity reagent sandwich assays. Here, we show that all sdAb bound the C-terminal region of NP, which was produced recombinantly to derive X-ray crystal structures of the three best performing antibody-antigen complexes. The common epitope is a trio of alpha helices that form a novel asymmetric basin-like depression that accommodates each sdAb paratope via substantial complementarity-determining region (CDR) restructuring. Shared core contacts were complemented by unique accessory contacts on the sides and overlooks of the basin yielding very different approach routes for each sdAb to bind the antigen. The C-terminal region of MARV NP was unable to be crystallized alone and required engagement with sdAb to form crystals suggesting the antibodies acted as crystallization chaperones. While gross structural homology is apparent between the two most conserved helices of MARV and Ebolavirus, the positions and morphologies of the resulting basins were markedly different. Naturally occurring amino acid variations occurring in bat and human Marburgvirus strains all mapped to surfaces distant from the predicted sdAb contacts suggesting a vital role for the NP interface in virus replication. As an essential internal structural component potentially interfacing with a partner protein it is likely the C-terminal epitope remains hidden or "cryptic" until virion disruption occurs. Conservation of this epitope over 50 years of Marburgvirus evolution should make these sdAb useful foundations for diagnostics and therapeutics resistant to drift.

  • [The origin of Ebola: Biomedical approach versus popular interpretations in Macenta, Guinea].
    [The origin of Ebola: Biomedical approach versus popular interpretations in Macenta, Guinea]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]Sante Publique 2017 10 02; 29(4):497-507.SPThys S, Boelaert M In December 2013, a two-year-old child died from viral haemorrhagic fever in Méliandou village in the South-East of Guinea, and constituted the likely index case of a major epidemic. When the virus was...In December 2013, a two-year-old child died from viral haemorrhagic fever in Méliandou village in the South-East of Guinea, and constituted the likely index case of a major epidemic. When the virus was formally identified as Ebola, epidemiologists started to investigate the chains of transmission, while local people were trying to make sense out of these deaths. The epidemic control measures taken by national and international health agencies were soon faced by strong reluctance and a sometimes aggressive attitude of the affected communities. Preliminary ethnographic observations were carried out by ST in Macenta (Forest region) during an assignment (October-November 2014) for the Global Outbreak and Alert Response Network (GOARN) of the World Health Organization. ST carried out participative observation, informal conversations and in-depth interviews to identify the rumours and their sources, understand the local population's perception and knowledge about the history and origin of the Ebola outbreak in Guinea. Epidemiologists involved in the outbreak response attributed the first Ebola deaths in the Forest region to the transmission of a virus by contact with fluids of patients, but other Guinean citizens believed these deaths were caused by the breach of a taboo. The epidemiological and popular explanations, mainly evolving in parallel, but sometimes overlapping, are driven by different explanatory models, a biomedical model and a traditional-religious model. The outbreak response must be flexible and must systematically document popular discourse(s), rumours, codes, practices, knowledge and opinions related to the outbreak and use this information to shape and adapt its control interventions.