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Ebola Literature - Latest PubMed Articles

Overview of latest articles and publications on ebola in PubMed. PubMed is a service of the US National Library of Medicine that includes over 18 million citations from MEDLINE and other life science journals.


  • Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas.
    Building the road to a regional zoonoses strategy: A survey of zoonoses programmes in the Americas. [Journal Article]PLoS One 2017; 12(3):e0174175.PlosMaxwell MJ, Freire de Carvalho MH, Hoet AE, et al. The survey is the first comprehensive effort to date to inform the status of zoonoses programmes in LAC. The information collected here will be used to develop a regional strategy for zoonoses (both en...Publisher Full TextIn recent years, global public health security has been threatened by zoonotic disease emergence as exemplified by outbreaks of H5N1 and H1N1 influenza, SARS, and most recently Ebola and Zika. Additionally, endemic zoonoses, such as rabies, burden countries year after year, placing demands on limited finances and personnel. To survey the baseline status of the emerging and endemic zoonoses programmes of the Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) conducted a survey of priority emerging and endemic zoonoses, countries´ prioritization criteria and methodologies, and suggestions to strengthen countries capacities and regional approaches to zoonoses control.A fillable online questionnaire was sent to the zoonoses programme managers of the Ministries of Health (MOH) and Ministries of Agriculture (MAg) of 33 LAC countries from January to April of 2015. The questionnaire comprised 36 single, multiple choice and open-ended questions to inform the objectives of the survey. A descriptive exploratory analysis was completed.Fifty-four ministries (26 MOH, 25 MAg, and 3 combined responses) in 31 LAC countries responded to the survey. Within the ministries, 22 (85%) MOH, 5 (20%) MAg, and 2 (67%) combined entities indicated they had specialized zoonoses units. For endemic zoonoses, 32 of 54 ministries responded that they conduct formal prioritization exercises, most of them annually (69%). The three priority endemic zoonoses for the MOHs were leptospirosis, rabies, and brucellosis while the three priorities for the MAgs were brucellosis, rabies, and tuberculosis. Diagnosis for rabies and leptospirosis were cited as the capacities most in need of development. The most needed cross-cutting capacity was coordination between stakeholders. For emerging zoonoses, 28 ministries performed formal prioritization exercises. The top prioritization criteria were probability of introduction into the country and impact. The three priority emerging zoonoses for the MOHs were Ebola viral disease, avian influenza, and Chikungunya while for the MAgs were avian influenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy and West Nile virus disease. Surveillance for avian influenza and Ebola, and diagnosis for BSE were quoted as the capacities most needed. For all zoonoses, the majority of respondents (69%) ranked their relationship with the other Ministry as productive or very productive, and 31% minimally productive. Many countries requested a formal regional network, better regional communication and collaboration, and integrated surveillance.The survey is the first comprehensive effort to date to inform the status of zoonoses programmes in LAC. The information collected here will be used to develop a regional strategy for zoonoses (both endemic and emerging), increase efforts, advocacy, and promote prompt identification and management of EIDs and improvement of endemic programmes.

  • Rapid detection and quantification of Ebola Zaire virus by one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
    Rapid detection and quantification of Ebola Zaire virus by one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. [Journal Article]Microbiol Immunol 2017 Mar 23.MIRo YT, Ticer A, Carrion R, et al. Since Ebola virus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, the rapid and accurate detection of the virus is essential both for controlling the infection and for ...Publisher Full TextSince Ebola virus causes a severe hemorrhagic fever in humans with mortality rates as high as 90%, the rapid and accurate detection of the virus is essential both for controlling the infection and for preventing further transmission. Here, we introduce one-step real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays for the rapid and quantitative detection of an Ebola Zaire strain using GP, VP24 or VP40 gene as a target. Routine assay conditions for hydrolysis probe detection were established by the manufacturer's protocol used in the assays. The analytical specificity and sensitivity of each assay was evaluated using in vitro synthesized viral RNA transcripts. The assays were highly specific for the RNA transcripts and no cross-reactivity was observed among them. The limits of detection of the assays ranged from 10(2) to 10(3) copies per reaction. The assays were also evaluated using viral RNAs extracted from cell culture-propagated viruses (Ebola Zaire, Sudan and Reston strains), confirming that they are gene- and strain-specific. The RT-PCR assays detected viral RNAs in blood samples of virus-infected animal, suggesting that they can be also a useful method for diagnosis of Ebola virus in clinical samples.

  • Towards a coherent global framework for health financing: recommendations and recent developments.
    Towards a coherent global framework for health financing: recommendations and recent developments. [Journal Article]Health Econ Policy Law 2017 Apr; 12(2):285-296.HEOttersen T, Elovainio R, Evans DB, et al. The articles in this special issue have demonstrated how unprecedented transitions have come with both challenges and opportunities for health financing. Against the background of these challenges and ...Publisher Full TextThe articles in this special issue have demonstrated how unprecedented transitions have come with both challenges and opportunities for health financing. Against the background of these challenges and opportunities, the Working Group on Health Financing at the Chatham House Centre on Global Health Security laid out, in 2014, a set of policy responses encapsulated in 20 recommendations for how to make progress towards a coherent global framework for health financing. These recommendations pertain to domestic financing of national health systems, global public goods for health, external financing for national health systems and the cross-cutting issues of accountability and agreement on a new global framework. Since the Working Group concluded its work, multiple events have reinforced the group's recommendations. Among these are the agreement on the Addis Ababa Action Agenda, the adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals, the outbreak of Ebola in West Africa and the release of the Panama Papers. These events also represent new stepping stones towards a new global framework.

  • Status update on women's reproductive health care and obstetrics/gynecology postgraduate training in post-Ebola Sierra Leone.
    Status update on women's reproductive health care and obstetrics/gynecology postgraduate training in post-Ebola Sierra Leone. [Journal Article]Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2017 Mar 23.IJChan Seay R, Koroma AP, Coleman J, et al. Academic partnerships can help to expand the women's reproductive healthcare workforce and improve maternal mortality.(1) In-country postgraduate and continuing medical education opportunities are key ...Publisher Full TextAcademic partnerships can help to expand the women's reproductive healthcare workforce and improve maternal mortality.(1) In-country postgraduate and continuing medical education opportunities are key to training and retaining specialized physicians. The present report describes a developing academic partnership to build capacity in Sierra Leone following the Ebola virus disease epidemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Digital triplex DNA assay based on plasmonic nanocrystals.
    Digital triplex DNA assay based on plasmonic nanocrystals. [Journal Article]Anal Bioanal Chem 2017 Mar 22.ABLi G, Zhu L, He Y, et al. A new analytical method has been developed to detect three kinds of DNA simultaneously based on magnetic beads and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals. Magnetic beads modified with capture DNA are emp...Publisher Full TextA new analytical method has been developed to detect three kinds of DNA simultaneously based on magnetic beads and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals. Magnetic beads modified with capture DNA are employed to collect the specific target DNA, and color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals are applied to signal the target through DNA hybridization. As a proof of concept, three types of representative metal nanocrystals of gold nanoparticle (AuNP), gold nanorod (AuNR), and gold/silver nanoparticle (Au/AgNP) were employed to signal three dissimilar virus-related protective antigen genes, Ebola virus (EV), Variola virus (VV), and Bacillus anthracis (BA), respectively. Detection limits of 0.5-3 fM were obtained showing the high sensitivity for DNA detection. The microscopic discrimination of the encoded nanoparticles allows simple, rapid, accurate, and cost-effective detection of multiple DNA molecules, indicative of the potential in practical applications. Graphical abstract Development of a novel digital triplex DNA assay based on single-countable color-encoded plasmonic nanocrystals.

  • Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating Ebola virus-like particles.
    Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara generating Ebola virus-like particles. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 Mar 22.JVSchweneker M, Laimbacher AS, Zimmer G, et al. There are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines to treat or protect against the severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). Ebola virus-like particles (EBOV-VLPs) consisti...Publisher Full TextThere are currently no approved therapeutics or vaccines to treat or protect against the severe hemorrhagic fever and death caused by Ebola virus (EBOV). Ebola virus-like particles (EBOV-VLPs) consisting of the matrix protein VP40, the glycoprotein (GP) and the nucleoprotein (NP) are highly immunogenic and protective in non-human primates against Ebola virus disease (EVD). We have constructed a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-Bavarian Nordic(®) (MVA-BN(®)) recombinant co-expressing VP40 and glycoprotein (GP) of EBOV Mayinga and the nucleoprotein (NP) of Taï Forest virus (TAFV) (MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP) to launch non-infectious EBOV-VLPs as a second vaccine modality in the MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP-vaccinated organism. Human cells infected with either MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP or MVA-BN-EBOV-GP showed comparable GP expression levels and transport of complex N-glycosylated GP to the cell surface. Human cells infected with MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP produced large amounts of EBOV-VLPs that were decorated with GP spikes but excluded the poxviral membrane protein B5, thus resembling authentic EBOV particles. The heterologous TAFV-NP enhanced EBOV-VP40-driven VLP formation with comparable efficiency as the homologous EBOV-NP in a transient expression assay, and both NPs were incorporated into EBOV-VLPs. EBOV-GP-specific CD8 T cell responses were comparably efficient between MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP and MVA-BN-EBOV-GP immunized mice. The levels of EBOV-GP-specific neutralizing and binding antibodies as well as GP-specific IgG1/IgG2a ratios induced by the two constructs in mice were also similar, raising the question whether the quality rather than the quantity of the GP-specific antibody response might be altered by an EBOV-VLP-generating MVA recombinant.IMPORTANCE The recent outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV), claiming more than 11,000 lives, has underscored the need to advance the development of safe and effective filovirus vaccines. Virus-like particles (VLPs) as well as recombinant viral vectors have proved to be promising vaccine candidates. Modified vaccinia virus Ankara-Bavarian Nordic(®) (MVA-BN(®)) is a safe and immunogenic vaccine vector with a large capacity to accommodate multiple foreign genes. In this study, we combined the advantages of VLPs and the MVA platform by generating a recombinant MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP that would produce non-infectious EBOV-VLPs in the vaccinated individual. Our results show that human cells infected with MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP indeed formed and released EBOV-VLPs, thus producing a highly authentic viral immunogen. MVA-BN-EBOV-VLP efficiently induced EBOV-specific humoral and cellular immune responses in vaccinated mice. These results are the basis for future advancements, e.g. by including antigens from various filoviral species to develop multivalent VLP-producing MVA based filovirus vaccines.

  • Ebolaviruses associated with differential pathogenicity induce distinct host responses in human macrophages.
    Ebolaviruses associated with differential pathogenicity induce distinct host responses in human macrophages. [Journal Article]J Virol 2017 Mar 22.JVOlejnik J, Forero A, Deflubé LR, et al. Ebola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated...Publisher Full TextEbola virus (EBOV) and Reston virus (RESTV) are members of the Ebolavirus genus which greatly differ in their pathogenicity. While EBOV causes a severe disease in humans characterized by a dysregulated inflammatory response and elevated cytokine and chemokine production, there are no reported disease-associated human cases of RESTV infection, suggesting that RESTV is non-pathogenic for humans. The underlying mechanisms determining the pathogenicity of different ebolavirus species are not yet known. In this study we dissect the host response to EBOV and RESTV infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs). As expected, EBOV infection led to a profound proinflammatory response, including strong induction of type I and type III IFNs. In contrast, RESTV-infected macrophages remained surprisingly silent. Early activation of IRF3 and NFκB was observed in EBOV-infected, but not in RESTV-infected MDMs. In concordance with previous results, MDMs treated with inactivated EBOV and Ebola virus-like particles (VLPs) induced NFκB activation mediated by TLR4 in a glycoprotein (GP)-dependent manner. This was not the case in cells exposed to live RESTV, inactivated RESTV, or VLPs containing RESTV GP, indicating that RESTV GP does not trigger TLR4 signaling. Our results suggest that the lack of immune activation in RESTV-infected MDMs contributes to lower pathogenicity by preventing the cytokine storm observed in EBOV infection. We further demonstrate that inhibition of TLR4 signaling abolishes EBOV GP-mediated NFκB activation. This finding indicates that limiting the excessive TLR4-mediated proinflammatory response in EBOV infection should be considered as a potential supportive treatment option for EBOV disease.Importance Emerging infectious diseases are a major public health concern as exemplified by the recent devastating Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak. Different ebolavirus species are associated with widely varying pathogenicity in humans ranging from asymptomatic infections for Reston virus (RESTV) to severe disease with fatal outcomes for EBOV. In this comparative study of EBOV- or RESTV-infected human macrophages, we identified key differences in host cell responses. Consistent with previous data, EBOV infection is associated with a proinflammatory signature triggered by the surface glycoprotein (GP) which can be inhibited by blocking TLR4 signaling. In contrast, infection with RESTV failed to stimulate a strong host response in infected macrophages due to the inability of RESTV GP to stimulate TLR4. We propose that disparate proinflammatory host signatures contribute to the differences in pathogenicity reported for ebolavirus species and suggest that proinflammatory pathways represent an intriguing target for the development of novel therapeutics.

  • Ebola - how a people's science helped end an epidemic.
    Ebola - how a people's science helped end an epidemic. [Journal Article]Med Confl Surviv 2016 Oct-Dec; 32(4):332-334.MCTaipale V Publisher Full Text

  • Risk in the "Red Zone": outcomes for children admitted to Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone without Ebola virus disease.
    Risk in the "Red Zone": outcomes for children admitted to Ebola holding units in Sierra Leone without Ebola virus disease. [Journal Article]Clin Infect Dis 2017 Mar 18.CIFitzgerald F, Wing K, Naveed A, et al. We collected data on 1054 children admitted to Ebola Holding Units in Sierra Leone and describe outcomes of 697/1054 children testing negative for Ebola virus disease (EVD) and accompanying caregivers....Publisher Full TextWe collected data on 1054 children admitted to Ebola Holding Units in Sierra Leone and describe outcomes of 697/1054 children testing negative for Ebola virus disease (EVD) and accompanying caregivers. Case-fatality was 9%; 3/630(0.5%) children discharged testing negative were readmitted EVD-positive. Nosocomial EVD transmission risk may be lower than feared.

  • Dynamics of Ebola RNA persistence in semen: report from the Postebogui cohort in Guinea.
    Dynamics of Ebola RNA persistence in semen: report from the Postebogui cohort in Guinea. [Journal Article]Clin Infect Dis 2017 Mar 14.CISubtil F, Delaunay C, Keita AK, et al. This study modeled the presence of EBOV-RNA in the semen of male Ebola survivors participating in the Postebogui study in Guinea. The median time of RT-PCR negativity was 46.4 days after symptom onset ...Publisher Full TextThis study modeled the presence of EBOV-RNA in the semen of male Ebola survivors participating in the Postebogui study in Guinea. The median time of RT-PCR negativity was 46.4 days after symptom onset (95% CI: [11; 82.6]). The results emphasize the importance of the WHO recommendations for survivors' management.

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